Proactively prevent disease
In order to create products of quality assurance, food hygiene and safety, during pond rehabilitation, farmers should only use lime and lime products to kill bacteria in the pond. Specifically, use quick lime (CaCO3), powdered lime (CaO) or slaked lime (Ca (OH) 2), at a dose of 10-15 kg / 100 m2 to kill pond bottom bacteria. Lime can also be used to disinfect rearing pond water every 2 weeks at a dose of 2 kg / 100 m3 of water (soak lime in water in jars, then get clear water throughout the pond).
When stocking starts a new crop, farmers need to buy seed of clear parentage, it is best to use high quality selected seed in the aquatic breeding centers and the reputable Pangasius hatchery production and hatchery. In particular, all selected breeds must have quarantine certificates meeting the veterinary agency's requirements.
When transporting seed to the pond, fish farmers can use treatment measures to minimize the pathogens in the fish. At this time, you can use the following solutions to bathe the fish such as: CuSO4.5H2O (green alum) with a dosage of 2 - 5 ppm (1 ppm equal to 1 mg / liter) for 10-15 minutes, table salt (NaCl) 3 - 5 ‰ for 3-5 minutes or formalin at a dose of 200 - 300 ppm for 15-20 minutes. Fish reared in ponds should not be densely stocked due to difficulty in managing, fish are susceptible to pathogens, and very high loss rates. Best stocking density for intensive catfish farming areas is about 20-40 fish / m2.
Feeding activities must be strictly managed, avoiding excess food causing environmental pollution, and increasing fish farming costs. Fish feed must ensure quality and meet the nutritional needs of each stage of fish development. When fish have signs of disease, they should reduce the amount of food, even maybe up to 50% of the food compared to normal. Water quality in the pond must be managed very well, avoiding the occurrence of fluctuating hydration factors and pond water contamination.
In the process of rearing, if forced to use chemicals, antibiotics in disease prevention and treatment, farmers must follow the instructions of professional and technical staff, absolutely do not use products containing active ingredients. trifluralin, enrofloxacin during culture for any intended use. Farmers also need to increase the resistance of farmed fish by supplementing with vitamin C periodically, especially at the time of the season.
When the fish show abnormalities, farmers need to bring the fish immediately to the nearest aquatic disease laboratory to determine the cause of the disease and be advised on the most effective treatment. Farmers should not take diseased fish to the veterinary drug stores to testify to buy drugs to treat the fish because the treatment effect is in the "bad luck" style, losing money but not highly effective.
Currently, almost all antibiotics used to treat fish disease in Pangasius farming areas have been resistant (no longer effective against bacterial diseases) by fish farmers (from fingerlings to meat fish). ) incorrect use of antibiotics, at the right dose, produces resistant strains of bacteria. Therefore, fish farmers need to take samples of diseased fish to the aquatic disease testing laboratory so that testers can check for parasites and make antibiotic results. If the causative agent is bacteria, the testers will tell you exactly which antibiotic is the most effective treatment.